Interactive visualization of droplet dynamic processes


The long term goal of this project is the development of new and improved algorithms and methods that allow for interactive visualization of large, time-dependent simulation and experimental data in the context of droplet dynamic processes. During the second funding period we focus on the development of new methods for the analysis of single droplets and droplet groups in the presence of electric fields, as well as for the analysis of phase transitions and transport of energy. Additionally, a foundation should be laid for the investigation of sprays, where the challenge lies in the enormous amount of droplets. Specialized techniques for drop impingement and molecular dynamics simulations complete this project.

Numerical flow visualization is the computer-based equivalent to experimental flow visualization. Initially, experimental procedures were modelled and thus their virtual counterparts were made available for the simulation data. Today, a lot of the visualization methods exceed such a modelling - many of the techniques used today cannot be realized experimentally or only with great difficulties. Great advantages of numerical visualizations are the fact that the costly experimental setups are not needed and that visual analyses do not affect the flow. Despite substantial progress in the field of computational flow visualization, more elaborate visualization techniques are still required to handle both the ever-increasing complexity of simulation and experimental data, and the more sophisticated physical phenomena being investigated. Particularly, new visual tools are necessary for the analysis of large droplet groups and sprays, as well as for the various physical phenomena investigated in SFB-TRR 75.

Building on the developed methods for the analysis of the electric fields on the droplet interface and the drop dynamics, visualization techniques for time-dependent interaction of fluid, charges and electric fields should be developed. The visualization of phase transitions constitutes an essential research area within SFB-TRR 75. Processes such as evaporation and icing, and the interplay between the processes and gas flow should be analyzed, with further extension to the context of drop impingement. Additionally, the method for the visualization of piecewise linear interface calculation, developed in the first funding period, should be examined in terms of its applicability to the simulation. The visual analysis of energy transport is related to the visualization of the phase transitions, also in the context of the three-phase contact line. For the investigation of the prevalent phenomena present during the droplet impingement, visualization methods should be researched, including the methods for energy transport. The visualization of space-time structure of sprays, visualization of molecular dynamics simulations, and the combination of the techniques developed in this funding period complete this project.


Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Thomas Ertl

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Thomas Ertl

Director subarea A1
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Moritz Heinemann, M.Sc.
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Heinemann, M., Frey, S., Tkachev, G., Straub, A., Sadlo, F., Ertl, T.:
Visual analysis of droplet dynamics in large-scale multiphase spray simulations
Journal of Visualization, 1857-8975, 2021.


Schatz, K.; Müller, C.; Gralka, P.; Heinemann, M.; Straub, A.; Schulz, C.; Braun, M.; Rau, T.; Becher, M.; Frey, S.; Reina, G.; Sedlmair, M.; Weiskopf, D.; Ertl, T.; Diehl, P. Marcello, D.; Frank, J.; Müller, T.
2019 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest Winner: Visual Analysis of Structure Formation in Cosmic Evolution
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 2020


Straub, A., Heinemann, M., Ertl, T.:
Visualization and Visual Analysis for Multiphase Flow
Proceedings of the DIPSI Workshop, 2019.

Schatz, K., Müller, C., Gralka, P., Heinemann, M., Straub, A., Schulz, C., Braun, M., Rau, T., Becher, M., Diehl, P., Marcello, D., Frank, J., Müller, T., Frey, S., Reina, G., Weiskopf, D., Ertl, T.:
Visual Analysis of Structure Formation in Cosmic Evolution
IEEE Scientific Visualization Conference (SciVis), 2019.


Karch G. K., Beck F., Ertl M., Meister C., Schulte K., Weigand B., Ertl T.,
Sadlo F.: Visual analysis of inclusion dynamics in two-phase flow.
IEEE Transactions on Visual Computing and Computer Graphics (accepted 02.04.2017) (2017).

Hempert F., Boblest S., Ertl T., Sadlo F., Offenhäuser P., Glass C. W., Hoffmann M., Beck A., Munz C.-D.:
Simulation of real gas effects in supersonic methane jets using a tabulated equation of state with a discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method,
Computers and Fluids 145 (2017), 167–179.


Machado G., Boblest S., Ertl T., Sadlo F.:
Space-time bifurcation lines for extraction of 2D Lagrangian coherent structures.
Computer Graphics Forum 35:3 (2016), 91–100.

Hempert, Fabian and Boblest, Sebastian and Hoffmann, M. and Offenhuser, P. and Sadlo, F. and Glass, Colin W and Munz, C.-D. and Ertl, T. and Iben, U.
Hgh-Pressure Real-Gas Jet and Throttle Flows at High Pressure as Simplified Gas Injector Models with a Discontinuous Galerkin Method
accepted to High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering 16. 2016.

Karch, Grzegorz K. and Sadlo, Filip and Weiskopf, Daniel and Ertl, Thomas
Visualization of 2D unsteady flow using streamline-based concepts in space-time
Journal of Visualization, Vol.19, pages: 115-128, 1875-8975

Ertl, Moritz and Weigand, Bernhard and Karch, Grzegorz K. and Sadlo, Filip and Ertl, Thomas
Investigation and Visual Analysis of Direct Simulations of Quasi-Steady Primary Break-up of Shear Thinning Liquids
Proceedings 9th International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2016), 2016.


S. Boblest, F. Hempert, M. Hoffmann, P. Offenhäuser, M. Sonntag, F. Sadlo, C. W. Glass, C.-D. Munz, T. Ertl, and U. Iben.
Toward a discontinuous Galerkin fluid dynamics framework for industrial applications.
In Proc. of High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering, 2015.

T. Bolemann, M. Üffinger, F. Sadlo, T. Ertl, and C.-D. Munz.
Direct visualization of piecewise polynomial data. In IDIHOM: Industrialization of High-Order Methods - A Top-Down Approach, volume 128 of Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, pages 535–550. 2015.


Sadlo, F., Karch, Grzegorz, K., Ertl, T.
Topological features in time-dependent advection-diffusion flow
Topological Methods in Data Analysis and Visualization III, pages 217-231. 2014.

Mwalongo, Finian and Krone, Michael and Karch, Grzegorz K. and Becher, Michael and Reina, Guido and Ertl, Thomas
Visualization of Molecular Structures using State-of-the-Art Techniques in WebGL
International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D'14), Vol. 19, pages 133-141. 2014.

Karch, Grzegorz K. and Sadlo, Filip and Weiskopf, Daniel and Ertl, Thomas
Streamline-Based Concepts for Space-Time Analysis of 2D Time-Dependent Flow
Proceedings of International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV16).2014.



Karch, G.K., Sadlo, F., Meister, C., Rauschenberger, P., Eisenschmidt, K., Weigand, B., Ertl, T.
Visualization of piecewise linear interface calculation
Proc. Pacific Visualization Symposium (2013) 121-128

Karch, G.K., Sadlo, F., Songoro, H., Gjonaj, E., Weiland, T., Ertl, T.
Visualizing edge-conforming discrete field quantities in electromagnetic field problems with interfaces.
Submitted to European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems 2013 (2013)


Frey, S.; Sadlo, F.; Ertl, T.
Visualization of Temporal Similarity in Field Data.
IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics 18 (2012) 2023-2032.

Hlawatsch, M.; Sadlo, F.; Weiskopf, D.
Predictability-Based Adaptive Mouse Interaction and Zooming for Visual Flow Exploration.
IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics 18 (2012) 2023-2032.

Ueffinger, M.; Sadlo, F.; Ertl, T.
A Time-Dependent Vector Field Topology Based on Streak Surfaces.
IEEE IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics 18 (2012) 2023-2032.

Karch, G. K.; Sadlo, F.; Weiskopf, D.; Munz, C.-D.; Ertl, T.
Visualization of Advection-Diffusion in Unsteady Fluid Flow.
IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics 18 (2012) 2023-2032.

Karch, G.K., Sadlo, F., Weiskopf, D., Hansen, C.D., Li, G.-S., Ertl, T.
Dye-based flow visualization.
Comput. Sci. Eng. 14 (2012) 80-86


Hlawatsch, M.; Sadlo, F.; Weiskopf, D.
Hierarchical Line Integration.
Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17(8), 1148 -1163, 2011

Pagot, C.; Osmari, D.; Sadlo, F.; Weiskopf, D.; Ertl, T.; Comba, J.
Efficient Parallel Vectors Feature Extraction from Higher-Order Data.
Computer Graphics Forum, 30(3), 751-760, 2011

Sadlo, F.; Ueffinger, M.; Pagot, C.; Osmari, D.; Comba, J.; Ertl, T. et al.
Visualization of Cell-Based Higher-Order Fields.
Computing in Science Engineering, 13(3), 84 -91, 2011

Pagot, C., Vollrath, J., Sadlo, F., Weiskopf, D., Ertl, T., Comba, J.:
Interactive isocontouring of high- order surfaces.
Dagstuhl Follow-Ups 2 (2011) 276-291.


Falk, M.; Seizinger, A.; Sadlo, F.; Üffinger, M.; Weiskopf, D.
Trajectory-Augmented Visualization of Lagrangian Coherent Structures in Unsteady Flow.
International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14), 2010